中国高等教育
𝑯𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒆𝒓 𝑬𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒊𝒏 𝑪𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒂

中国高等教育学历分三个层次:大学专科、大学本科及研究生。

Higher curricula education of China is divided into the Specialty Education, Undergraduate Education, and Postgraduate Education.​​​​

  • 大学专科教育:主要由高等专科学校(高专)、高等职业技术学院(高职)开展,全日制专科学年制度为 2-3 年。专科层次没有学位,毕业后只颁发专科毕业证书。

𝐒𝐩𝐞𝐜𝐢𝐚𝐥𝐭𝐲 𝐄𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 is delivered by Chinese professional schools of higher education and vocational-technical schools of higher education, the schooling term is about 2-3 years. Students who meet the graduation requirements can only gain a Graduation Certificate (Diploma).

  • 大学本科教育:主要由大学、学院开展(大学和学院是根据办学规模、学科与专业、师资队伍、教学与科研水平等因素进行划分的),全日制本科学年制度为 4-5 年。达到要求的学生毕业后一般可获本科毕业证书和学士学位证书。

𝐔𝐧𝐝𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐫𝐚𝐝𝐮𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐄𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 is delivered by Chinese universities and colleges. The schooling term of full-time universities is 4-5 years. Students who meet the graduation requirements can be conferred with a Bachelor's degree and the Graduation Certificate.

  • 研究生教育:分为硕士研究生和博士研究生,主要由大学、科研机构开展,学年制度为 2-3 年。达到要求的学生毕业后一般可获研究生毕业证书和硕士或博士学位证书。

𝐏𝐨𝐬𝐭𝐠𝐫𝐚𝐝𝐮𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐄𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 is delivered by Chinese universities and research institutes, it is divided into the Master and the PhD studies. The schooling term of full-time universities is 2-3 years. Students who meet the graduation requirements can be conferred with a Master's degree or Doctor's degree, as well as the Graduation Certificate.

中国把发展教育放在首位,提出科教兴国战略,中国在高等教育领域进行实施了多项跨世纪的重点建设战略工程:
China has placed priority on developing education, putting forward the strategy of revitalizing the country through science and education. China has implemented many cross-century quality education projects, such as:

 

𝟐𝟏𝟏 工程  𝙏𝙝𝙚 '𝙋𝙧𝙤𝙟𝙚𝙘𝙩 𝟐𝟏𝟏'

此政策是由中华人民共和国教育部于 1995 年启动,该项目旨于在 21 世纪内重点建设 100 所左右的大学和建设一批重点学科。从 1996 年到 2000 年,该项目已投入了约 20 亿美元。到目前为止,中国有 116 所大学符合该工程的标准要求,它们为学生提供了高等教育。此政策已被统筹为“双一流”建设。

The '𝙋𝙧𝙤𝙟𝙚𝙘𝙩 𝟐𝟏𝟏' is an educational project launched by the Chinese Ministry of Education in 1995. It was aimed at strengthening about 100 institutions of higher education and key disciplinary areas as a national priority for the 21st century. In the first phase of the project, about 2 billion US dollars were distributed from 1996 to 2000. Under the project, 116 selected Chinese national universities and colleges have been able to meet the standards of scientific, technical, and human resources specified, and they are offering higher degree programs for students. This project has been replaced by the '𝘿𝙤𝙪𝙗𝙡𝙚 𝙁𝙞𝙧𝙨𝙩-𝘾𝙡𝙖𝙨𝙨' Initiative.

 

​​​​​𝟗𝟖𝟓 工程  𝙏𝙝𝙚 '𝙋𝙧𝙤𝙟𝙚𝙘𝙩 𝟗𝟖𝟓'

此政策在 1998 年 5 月 4 日由中华人民共和国国家主席江泽民在庆祝北京大学建校 100 周年大会上宣布成立。该项目旨在加速 21 世纪世界先进水平的一流大学的建设,以及向世界展示中国教育体系的发展和声誉。此政策下共有 39 所大学参与,目前已被统筹为“双一流”建设。

The '𝙋𝙧𝙤𝙟𝙚𝙘𝙩 𝟗𝟖𝟓' is another educational project. For the first time, Chinese President Jiang Zemin was announced on 4 May 1998 in a ceremony organized on the 100th anniversary of the University of Peking. This project has been introduced to introduce world-class universities in the 21st Century and introduce the progress and reputation of the Chinese education system worldwide. So far, there are 39 universities sponsored by the project. This project has been replaced by the '𝘿𝙤𝙪𝙗𝙡𝙚 𝙁𝙞𝙧𝙨𝙩-𝘾𝙡𝙖𝙨𝙨' Initiative.

 

双一流建设 𝙏𝙝𝙚 '𝘿𝙤𝙪𝙗𝙡𝙚 𝙁𝙞𝙧𝙨𝙩-𝘾𝙡𝙖𝙨𝙨' 𝙄𝙣𝙞𝙩𝙞𝙖𝙩𝙞𝙫𝙚

中国在 2017 年公布此高等教育建设计划,旨在于 2050 年年底最终建成一批世界一流大学和一流学科,将中国打造成为国际高等教育强国。根据教育部、财政部和国家发改委联合发布的通知,世界一流大学建设高校为 42 所,打造优势学科为一流学科的高校为 95 所。与 211 工程及 985 工程不同,实行动态管理,但大学的 “双一流” 称号并非终身制,中国将对建设高校实施了动态监测与管理,保障大学提供的教育水平。

The initiative was released in 2017 by China's government, it aims to ultimately build a number of world-class universities and disciplines by the end of 2050, in an effort to make China an international higher education power. According to the circular, 42 universities and colleges will be developed into world-class educational institutions, while 95 universities will focus on building their preponderant disciplines into first-rate ones. Different from Project 985 and Project 211, the '𝘿𝙤𝙪𝙗𝙡𝙚 𝙁𝙞𝙧𝙨𝙩-𝘾𝙡𝙖𝙨𝙨' title for university is not an interminable status, they will receive dynamic monitoring and management.